Maciej Gallas- rozdział: Zagadnienie doboru obsady wokalnej w kompozycjach wokalno-instrumentalnych J.S. Bacha

autor: Maciej Gallas, rozdział: "Zagadnienie doboru obsady wokalnej (solowa contra zespołowa) w historycznej i współczesnej praktyce wykonawczej w kompozycjach wokalno-instrumentalnych Johanna Sebastiana Bacha" [w:] CANTUS CHORALIS SLOVACA 2018 Zborník materiálov z XIII. medzinárodného sympózia o zborovom speve v Banskej Bystrici, red: prof. PaedDr. Milan Pazúrik, Banska Bystrica 2019, ISBN 978-80-557-1566-7


Since the midpoint of the 20 century the music world has witnessed the whole new approach to the Bach music.The change aimed at returning music of the Thomaskantor in Leipzig as close to its original condition as it was possible. This was made possible by restoring historical instruments and conducting profound studies on this ground. The idea of playing Bach's music in romantic orchestra manner is being overtaken by historic interpretation. The issue described, concerns also the quantity of the cast either vocal or instrumental. I present facts and historical factors providing evidence of the number of singers that was originally used by the composer. As an example I have chosen the composition of the significant size and momentum which undoubtably is St John Passion. The additional point in its favor is the fact that it had been conducted by Bach for four time which gave him an opportunity to present it in the best possible and premeditated manner. It concerns not only the quality of the interpretation, but also the quantity of the vocal cast which could affect the style. I give analysis to three model types of vocal cast: soloists, vocal ensemble (several people) and choir (dozens of people). In the solo conceptions the soli and tutti parts are interpreted by the same singers. However the composition doesn’t gain monumental form, but its details are better stressed. One can hear phrasing and ornaments. The vocal ensemble conception allows to manipulate the contrast of the sound - soli & tutti, to differentiate the characters on the stage and diversify the composition structure. Therefore the conception is the closest to its original form, used by Bach. The most anachronistic conception is the choral though it allows to create drama on the stage and manipulate dynamism of loudness on the range scale. At the end I focus on the the music work identity. I ask the question about how far can we go from Bach music in our interpretations? How much can we manipulate original, historical set of instruments and quantity of the singers